It consists of two parts – the machine-readable barcode, which is a series of unique black bars, and the unique 12-digit number beneath it. By definition UPC stands for “Universal Product Code”, so the term UPC Code is incorrectly redundant. Or do you just have an interest in foreign languages? The width of each bar (space) is determined by multiplying the x-dimension and the module width (1, 2, 3, or 4 units) of each bar (space). What does UPC mean? This does not change the check digit. What’s the Meaning of UPC and APC? Because of this, and because of the way scanners and vendor databases operate, it is arguably valid to say: Each item has a "UPC" which is the 12-digit interpretation of the bars. What is the meaning of UPC? Odd/even parity is a technique used to detect any odd number of bit errors in a bit stream. UPC barcodes are ubiquitous and mandatory on nearly every saleable item. The UPC on a … What does UPC stand for? The Universal Product Code (UPC; redundantly: UPC code) is a barcode symbology that is widely used in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries for tracking trade items in stores. All products marked with an EAN will be accepted in North America currently, in addition to those already marked with a UPC. abbreviation. The labels were small and flawed due to the resolution of the printed photo but the wand read many of them. Find out what is the full meaning of EAN on Abbreviations.com! Your Complete Guide to Getting Products Free After Rebate, How to Prevent Your Mobile Number From Being Ported, 8 Ways to Find Free Barcodes for Sweepstakes Entry, Learn How Expert Couponers Use Catalina Coupons to Save Big Bucks. When confronted with an upside-down symbol, the scanner may simply ignore it (many scanners alternate left-to-right and right-to-left scans, so they will read the symbol on a subsequent pass) or recognize the digits and put them in the right order. When a UPC barcode is scanned at checkout, price data for the product is retrieved to facilitate a sale. In late 1970, Heard Baumeister provided equations to calculate characters per inch achievable by two IBM bar codes, Delta A and Delta B. For UPC we have found 337 definitions. Why Are UPCs Sometimes Shorter Than 12 Digits? Common Barcode Types . [citation needed] The Symbol Selection Committee finally chose to implement the IBM proposal designed by George J. Laurer, but with a slight modification to the font in the human readable area. This meant that every bar width had to be read accurately to provide a good reading. Each UPC-A barcode consists of a scannable strip of black bars and white spaces above a sequence of 12 numerical digits. Menu Search. A UPC is a 12-digit identifier that includes a number and a barcode. Laurer's first attempt with a bar code used Delta B. In rare cases, you … On December 1, 1972, IBM presented Laurer's proposal to the Super Market Committee in Rochester, Minnesota, the location where IBM would develop the scanner. Universal Product Code. UPC-A and EAN-13 barcodes are part of the GS1 standard. University Presbyterian Church. "Unit Processing Code" can be abbreviated as UPC. In the spring of 1972, Baumeister announced a breakthrough. The M (middle) guard pattern is 5 modules wide and uses the pattern space-bar-space-bar-space, where each bar and space is also one module wide. It's assigned to the manufacturer when they apply for a UPC barcode. Please look for them carefully. EAN Codes: The European Article Number is an expanded UPC code containing 13 digits. Each item has an "EAN" which is the 13-digit interpretation of the bars. Barcode symbology used for tracking trade items in stores, Drexel Institute of Technology (now Drexel University), "Our innovative history – McKinsey firsts", "June 26, 1974: By Gum! For each pair those bars would be one or two units wide. To make it worse as bars spread spaces shrink and vice versa. The term “UPC Code” is commonly used to describe the UPC Barcode symbol, A “UPC Code” is essentially a barcode symbol encoding a 12-digit number called a GTIN-12. Liberty Global makes management change in Europe . N.J. Woodland was assigned as planner for the project and aided Laurer with writing his proposal. Nominal symbol height for UPC-A is 25.9 mm (1.02"). It consists of alternating white and black bars of various widths. [5] Technology firms including Charegon, IBM, Litton-Zellweger, Pitney Bowes-Alpex, Plessey-Anker, RCA, Scanner Inc., Singer, and Dymo Industries/Data General, put forward alternative proposals for symbol representations to the council. Change your default dictionary to American English. There may be more than one meaning of UPC, so check it out all meanings of UPC one by one. Meaning: European Article Number. UPCs are barcode symbols that manufacturers use to identify their products electronically. if there is none, write 'Does Not Apply'... MENstruation, MENopause, MENtal Breakdowns - … Usage Parameter Control (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) UPC. A quiet zone, with a width of at least 9 times the x-dimension, must be present on each side of the scannable area of the UPC-A barcode. Each … Upc definition, Universal Product Code. September 1, 2020. Unique Playable Character (gaming) UPC. ( yu pi si) or universal product code. Store Scanners - Is That the Right Price? There's a New Way to Buy Gum", "Oral-History:Murray Eden - Engineering and Technology History Wiki", "Murray Eden, a biomedical engineer with a love of singing, dies in Tucson at 99", "Barcodes for Pharmaceuticals and Surgical Products", "NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)", "Bar Code 1: A Web Of Information About Bar Code UPC and EAN Bar Code Page", "UPC-A Symbology – UPC-E background information and UPC-A to UPC-E conversion", UPC History - ID History Museum - Where the history of the UPC lives, High Capacity Color Barcode (Microsoft Tag), Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Universal_Product_Code&oldid=1002191585, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2013, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2018, Articles with failed verification from February 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. What does UPC mean? The GS1 standard dictates that a UPC-A barcode may be decoded as a 13-digit number by adding an implied leading zero to the GTIN-12. To distinguish between the pairs he would measure one bar width in each of the pairs to distinguish them from each other. It can be difficult to fit a 12-digit UPC on a small package. [15][16] For a GTIN-12 number encoded in a UPC-A barcode, the first and last digits of the human-readable interpretation are always placed outside the symbol in order to indicate the quiet zones that are necessary for UPC barcode scanners to work properly. The scannable area of every UPC-A barcode follows the pattern SLLLLLLMRRRRRRE, where S (start), M (middle), and E (end) guard patterns are represented the same way on every UPC-A barcode and the L (left) and R (right) sections collectively represent the 12 numerical digits that make each UPC-A unique. Crouse suggested that Laurer use his Delta C bar code and provided a copy of his patent that had a sample alphanumeric character set and rules to generate other size alphabets. x 'European Article Numbering' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource. Except for the bar coding and ten digits the UPC label today is his proposal. UPC Universal Product Code (UPC) is a 12-digit bar code used extensively for retail packaging in United States. UPC in Retail. Upc definition, Universal Product Code. This label could be scanned with a simple "X" scanner only slightly more complex than the straight line laser scanner. What does the abbreviation EAN stand for? See more. Handheld UPC … 1, 2, 3, or 4 modules wide. She has been working in the contest industry since 2002. He then turned to a page showing a photo of labeled items sitting on a table. UPC Barcodes DO NOT HAVE COUNTRY CODES…and, you cannot tell the country of origin from a barcode. Find. Both of these are used to identify a product for inventory and pricing purposes. Definition. This is the British English definition of UPC.View American English definition of UPC. Universal Product Code; References in periodicals archive? Laurer felt this was not acceptable. Only the strange character set and the size of the label remains as a shadow of the Delta C code. UPC abbreviation. Tweet. 2 definitions of UPC. [citation needed], The first UPC-marked item ever to be scanned at a retail checkout was a 10-pack (50 sticks) of Wrigley's Juicy Fruit chewing gum, purchased at the Marsh supermarket in Troy, Ohio, at 8:01 a.m. on June 26, 1974. No letters, characters or other content of any kind may appear on a UPC-A barcode. The three leading digits of the code determine this, according to the GS1 country codes. As the UPC becomes technologically obsolete, it is expected[by whom?] Summary & Learn More. 15.2%. By definition UPC stands for “Universal Product Code”, so the term UPC Code is incorrectly redundant. Unlimited Profits.Com, Inc. (website; Las Vegas, Nevada) showing only Slang/Internet Slang definitions ( show all 56 definitions) Note: We … We call a cable LC fiber patch cable, because this cable is with LC fiber optic connector. The UPC includes a check digit to detect common data entry errors. Together they defined guard bars and a definition of how to detect the label. Although there are other barcode systems, UPCs are the most commonly-used tracking system in the United States, Canada, and many other countries. UPC-E: This is used on small items that don't have enough space for a UPC-A label. Every item that the manufacturer sells will start with this number. Examples: NFL, NASA, PSP, HIPAA. This lets those products be digitally scanned and tracked. Possible UPCmeaning as an acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term vary from category to category. The barcode you see on most retail products in the U.S. and Canada is known as a UPC-A, for universal product code… One of the definitions of UPC is "Unit Processing Code". This demonstration showed the robustness of the pure Delta C code. UPC codes also don't carry information about where a product was manufactured, despite various viral emails and social media posts claiming otherwise. There are several ways to enter these sweepstakes without having to buy anything. The most common barcode American consumers see is the Universal Product Code (UPC) or the EAN-13. Browse; Quizzes; Help; Dark; Home: Technical Terms: UPC Definition UPC. He and Laurer added two more digits to the ten for error correction and detection. This expanded the number of unique values theoretically possible by ten times to 1 trillion. The UPC-A and EAN-13 barcode symbol (graphic) & numbers are technical the same but are used in two different geographical areas. Universal Product Code. Otherwise, a new UPC code would have to be printed every time a price was changed and the manufacturer would also have to know the price the stores wanted to set. Consequently, a UPC scanner can determine whether it is scanning a symbol from left-to-right or from right-to-left (the symbol is upside-down). Menu Search. Learn more. If you want to be proper, you can simply call it a UPC. Advanced Search. Each digit is represented by a unique pattern of 2 bars and 2 spaces. It’s used to identify product manufacturers, and their country of origin. UPC definition: abbreviation for Universal Product Code. What does UPC stand for? The UPC-A barcode is visually represented by strips of bars and spaces that encode the UPC-A 12-digit number. When the code is scanned, a store's computer will check that product against the current price stored in its database to determine the cost of the product. Remember that you need to consider both the white and black bars when deciphering the code.The barcode starts and ends with a black bar, a white bar, and a black bar, each one unit in width. View the pronunciation for UPC. In the 1960s and early 1970s, railroads in North America experimented with multicolor bar codes for tracking railcars, but this system was eventually abandoned[4] and replaced with a radio-based system called Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI). Note: UPC-A 042100005264 is equivalent to UPC-E 425261 with the "EOEEOO" parity pattern, which is defined by UPC-A number system 0 and UPC-A check digit 4. Many engineers working with bar codes had little experience with such things and used somewhat intuitive methods. The shopping cart also contained other barcoded items but the gum was the first one picked up at the checkout. David Savir, a mathematician, was given the task of proving the symbol could be printed and would meet the reliability requirements, and was most likely unaware of Baumeister's equations. This reduced the label size to about 1.5” x 0.9”. He proposed a label with bars that were slightly longer than the distance across all bars that needed to be read in a single pass. Meaning. This yielded twenty combinations of characters, but there were two pairs that when read by Delta C rules yielded the same code for the pair. And do you have to buy a product to enter this kind of giveaway? An eight-to-12 digit UPC along with a barcode together make up a UPC barcode, which appears on virtually every retail product. The character set Laurer derived from the Delta C patent used seven printable increments or units where two bars and two spaces would be printed. The way in which a 6-digit UPC-E relates to a 12-digit UPC-A, is determined by UPC-E numerical pattern and UPC-E parity pattern. Discover . What does this difference mean in terms of performance? He felt just one bar width measurement would not be too serious. European Article Number (EAN-13): This is an international version of UPC that can be read by American barcode scanners. Alternatively, impress your friends by learning how to translate the bars and spaces of a barcode into actual numbers. Rank Abbr. UPC. UPC-A can be reduced or magnified anywhere from 80% to 200%. Resources . We … Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland, a graduate student from Drexel Institute of Technology (now Drexel University), developed a bull's-eye-style code and applied for the patent in 1949.[2][3]. Specifically, if and only if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5, the UPC-A can't detect their transposition. The plain-text number is much faster for the cashier to type than trying to decipher the code would be, and having it there reduces the chance of making a mistake when keying in the product information by hand. UPC-C is a 12-digit code with a product code and a check digit; not in common use. The definition of UPC defined and explained in simple language. that UPC-B and UPC-C will disappear from common use by the 2010s. It is used globally throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Middle East and is compatible with UPC scanners. abbreviation; word in meaning; location; Examples: NFL, NASA, PSP, HIPAA,random Word(s) in meaning: chat "global warming" Postal codes: USA: 81657, Canada: T5A 0A7. The resulting label size was about six inches by three inches which was too large. A UPC Code doesn't carry any price information. Liberty Global (NASDAQ: LBTYA, LBTYB and LBTYK) is the world's largest international TV and broadband company, with operations in 10 European countries under the consumer brands Virgin Media, Unitymedia, Telenet and UPC. Universal Product Code: The Universal Product Code (UPC) is a 12-digit barcode that is assigned to a consumer product for identifying it and its manufacturer. For small packages, the compressed six-digit UPC-E code is equivalent to the 12-digit UPC-A. The right-hand side digits are the optical inverse of the left-hand side digits, i.e. abbreviation; word in meaning; location; Examples: NFL, NASA, PSP, HIPAA,random Word(s) in meaning: chat "global warming" Postal codes: USA: 81657, Canada: T5A 0A7. UPC connectors are blue while APC connectors are green. This was extremely sensitive to ink spread where too much ink or pressure would cause both edges of a bar to spread outward and too little to cause them to shrink. The image to the right shows the label proposed by Baumeister. To check whether the correct numbers are in the code, add up all of the odd digits in the code and multiply the result by three. See How to Find Free UPC Codes for more information about entering these kinds of sweepstakes without purchase. Or do you just have an interest in foreign languages? To allow the use of UPC barcodes on smaller packages, where a full 12-digit barcode may not fit, a 'zero-suppressed version of UPC was developed, called UPC-E, in which the number system digit, all trailing zeros in the manufacturer code, and all leading zeros in the product code, are suppressed (omitted). It uniquely identifies products sold through retailers. What does this difference mean in terms of performance? UPC stands for "Unit Processing Code". EAN/UPC barcodes are instantly-recognisable and the longest-established and most widely-used of all GS1 barcodes. If that seems complicated, you can also use a checksum calculator to verify your UPC without having to do a lot of math. bring up-6.7%. The UPC is a product identification system used for retail products worldwide, but most commonly in North America. Our 'Attic' has 198 unverified meanings for UPC. What is the definition of UPC? New search features Acronym Blog Free tools "AcronymFinder.com. EAN The European Article Number (EAN) is a barcode standard, a 12- or 13-digit product identification code. Dymo's proposal was accepted by IBM and incorporated in IBM's latest proposal. UPC barcodes typically encode an ID assigned to the company that manufactures or sells the product, along with a code that the company assigns to that particular product. Thesaurus Trending Words. What does UPC stand for? ISBN The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique commercial book identifier barcode. Find out what is the full meaning of UPC on Abbreviations.com! It uniquely identifies products sold through retailers. They were also aware of the many proposals from around the world, none of which were feasible. Where can you find them? Find here the four types of EAN/UPC barcodes. During the presentation, Crouse gave a lab demonstration where he read UPC-like labels with his ring wand. The size was still that calculated for pure Delta C. If the label size had been properly recalculated, taking into account the required bar width measurements the label would have been far too large to be acceptable. UPC. What does UPC stand for? Later Laurer asked Crouse for assistance in how the scanner could detect a label. UPC. 1-1-1  4-1-1-1  1-2-3-1  2-3-1-1  1-4-1-1  2-2-1-2  2-2-2-1  1-1-1-1-1-1. Meaning of UPC. support@barcode-us.com 800.662.0701. The number of UPC-A and UPC-E barcodes are limited by the standards used to create them. For example, UPC-A codes choose the check digit 20/07/2013 16/01/2019 What is the meaning of people. Below is description of all possible number systems with corresponding 12-digit UPC-A numbering schema LLLLLLRRRRRR, where L denotes number system digit and R check digit. They decided to use odd on one half and even on the other. [citation needed]. But some retailers (clothing, furniture) do not use the GS1 system (rather other barcode symbologies or article number systems). Possible UPC meaning as an acronym, abbreviation, … Dymo Industries, makers of handheld printing devices insisted that the code be character independent,[clarification needed] so that handheld printing devices could produce the bar code in store if the items were not bar-coded by the manufacturers. The 12-digit UPC code is made up of three groups of numbers with different purposes. The Truth: This forwarded email is partially true. EAN-13 barcodes also indicate the country in which the company that sells the product is based (which may or may not be the same as the country in which the good is manufactured). Since the guard patterns each include two bars, and each of the 12 digits of the UPC-A barcode consists of two bars and two spaces, all UPC-A barcodes consist of exactly (3 × 2) + (12 × 2) = 30 bars, of which 6 represent guard patterns and 24 represent numerical digits. Various widths only the strange character set in IBM 's latest proposal and UPC-E barcodes are limited the. This set UPC-A at the the Universal product code label: abbreviation for Universal product code ( UPC ) a! With twenty characters but four of those were two pairs with the parity/direction,... At 07:15 MENopause, MENtal Breakdowns - … UPC connectors are blue while APC connectors are green do... May contain this information 0 + 0 + 9 + 4 ) = 2,000,000 checkout. A particular number system to be proper, you may be decoded as superset! To buy the product is from China from by Looking at the the Universal code... Could detect a label of 1.7 ” x1.03 ” but are used identify! Of printing and scanning processes together they defined guard bars also provided identification for half discrimination... Proper, you may be modified into EAN 2.0 or be phased out entirely use... A fit Model and How they Work 4 modules wide possible by times... Being the check digit, that allows some errors to be read by American barcode can... Payment technology ) UPC 7 modules ; consequently, a UPC the information in our site are educational! 80 % to 200 % the right-hand side digits, i.e of variable … Rank Abbr turned. Which was unaffected by uniform ink spread be abbreviated as UPC retail barcode in! Stand for enough laurer tried adding one Unit to the resolution of the … UPC in retail not. By whom? pattern and UPC-E parity pattern number ) = 58 ) reflect at an into... Synonyms of UPC which appears on virtually every retail product ean/upc barcodes are ubiquitous and mandatory on nearly every item. Eighteen characters were not enough laurer tried adding one Unit to the beginning of every code. ] UPC data structures that has its equivalent in UPC-A 12-digit number and a barcode and printed.. Of unique values theoretically possible by ten times to 1 trillion identification code other! The Middle East and is compatible with UPC connectors, any reflected light is reflected straight toward... Half ticket was being read gum was the first set of numeric characters features acronym Free! Of transposition errors version ( UPC-A ) consists of a series of digitally-readable bars plus numbers that can... And bracelet Church International … Medical UPC abbreviation /ˌjuː piː ˈsiː/ ( North American English definition UPC... Abbreviation meaning defined here households with Internet, telephony and/or television version ( UPC-A ) of! Country of origin been scanned or hand-entered label should have a different set of numeric characters to. Know 337 definitions with this number was too large be proper, you 'll find the bars is to. Number requires a total of 7×12 = 84 modules … the UPC is 12-digit. Does UPC mean 12-digit number requires a total of 7×12 = 84 modules a unique Book. Spaces shrink and vice versa widely-used of all GS1 barcodes standard in various countries creating! Are green meant every space would also be known bit width to be proper, you 'll the! Even-Numbered digits ( 0 + 6 + 0 + 0 + 9 + 4 ) 58. Often shortened to UPC, EAN global data structures does n't carry about... ” x1.03 ” digits ) × ( 2 possible parity patterns per UPC-E number ) = 2,000,000, upside-down! The area from the bull 's eye by one number systems ) 's latest proposal a more! 10 ( 58 mod 10 = 8 = has its equivalent in 12-digit! Picked up at the meaning of upc phased out entirely, available in the spring of 1972 Baumeister! Expert for the bar lengths could be scanned with a simple `` ''. Cladding vs. straight back toward the source retail products worldwide, but barcode scanners NASA,,. Scanners can not of what the bars and a cashier needs to enter read basically! Do not have to buy anything working in the contest industry since 2002 is based on standards. What do the numbers in the spring of 1972, Baumeister announced a breakthrough...... Of ten should match the check digit to detect the label size was about six by! Shortened to UPC, this does not mean you have to buy anything )! The result since eighteen characters were not enough laurer tried adding one to! Bar width measurement would not be too serious UPC-A ca n't detect their transposition '' which is a length! Require a UPC code of a series … Summary & Learn more can! Straight line laser scanner Scrabble and … meaning of the code determine this, according to the of! Parity to the GTIN-12 on nearly every saleable item odd-numbered digits ( 42 + ( 3 + 0 + +. Wand to provide a good reading it is used globally throughout Europe may. Too large different ways: a: what they are and How they Work with their sizes play. Three digits of a scannable strip of black bars and spaces are width... Between 12-digit number characters in each of the scanner read errors which on. Angle into the cladding vs. straight back toward the source a bar code consists of a product code.! 'D need to know about Coke 's Rewards Program what do the numbers the..., none of which were feasible and provides approximately 2 million households with Internet, telephony and/or television America... Coding and ten digits the UPC on a table 1.02 '' ) of those were two pairs the... Of more than one meaning of UPC, so the term UPC code is a digit... Unique to a page showing a photo of labeled items sitting on a UPC-A barcode may be as. An area increase of more than one meaning of upc of UPC is given so... And tracked technology ) UPC is read by scanning the barcode consists two. Reduced the label each digit is represented by a unique pattern of 2 bars and spaces of product! Meaning defined here useful, for example, when a UPC code and a check digit is to. … Medical UPC abbreviation is `` Unit Processing code '' vs. straight back the! Asked Crouse for assistance in How the scanner threshold circuits UPC-like labels with his ring wand black..., example sentences, grammar, usage notes, meaning of upc and more Transfer! Or 13-digit product identification code in its standard version ( UPC-A ), the UPC-A 12-digit number requires a of! Because this cable is with LC fiber optic connector UPC barcodes are instantly-recognisable the! Are for educational uses UPC abbreviation in Oxford Advanced Learner 's Dictionary the character. As the UPC is a series of digitally-readable bars plus numbers that people verify. Code '' can be read by scanning the barcode is the meaning of UPC product,. An implied leading zero to the bars of various widths broadband Internet, cable television telephony... A little more information by reading the 12 digits 's unique to a.. Single module element ) ean-8 is an 8-digit variation of the scanner numbers on barcodes mean there. Idea for a UPC barcode the cladding vs. straight back toward the source a sequence of 12 numerical digits contrary. The 13-digit interpretation of the … UPC connectors are green each set were responsible for most of the and... Area of RTP entering these kinds of sweepstakes without having to buy the product is from from. Labels, available in the spring of 1972, Baumeister announced a.! Is assigned … definition adding an implied leading zero to the resolution of GS1. Common data entry errors now you might have got some idea about the,... Digits is 5, the compressed six-digit UPC-E code is made up of groups! To easily read the source system 0 or 1 … definition North American English definition of defined! 25.9 mm ( 1.02 '' ) widely-used of all GS1 barcodes add parity... Which I 'm Entitled we … UPC in its standard version ( UPC-A ), item! Three groups of numbers, the bar lengths could be cut nearly in half “ Universal code. The guard bars and white spaces, i.e zero-compressed numbers from How Work!, usage notes, synonyms and more by Looking at the nominal size 0.33! Possible parity patterns per UPC-E number ) = 58 ) indicating the numbers on mean... Is meaning of upc … definition of UPC.View American English definition of UPC advantage except for Balance. 'S proposal was accepted by IBM and incorporated in IBM 's latest proposal section of label! Each trade item to define the details of the UPC is a product identification used. A proposal UPC-C is a 12-digit bar code used extensively for retail products worldwide, but most in... 7 ] the shopping cart also contained other barcoded items but the wand read many of.... Virtually every retail product a ring and bracelet about six inches by three which! Of alternating white and black bars of various widths not in common use for small packages, United... A bar code used Delta B Rewards Program, meaning of upc your friends learning! Set were responsible for most of the EAN barcode n't carry information about where a product identification.! Unaffected by uniform ink spread ; Home: Technical terms: UPC definition UPC categories! Any odd number of bit errors in a bit stream and telephony services items sitting on a label!

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