bicarbonate, is increased. Thus water loss by transpiration is reduced (Long, 1999). Pea leaf triose phosphate isomerases, Photorespiration—the bridge to C4 photosynthesis, C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms, Evolution of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Flaveria, a conserved serine residue in the carboxyl-terminal part of the enzyme is a major determinant for C4-specific characteristics, C4 photosynthesis evolved in grasses via parallel adaptive genetic changes, Leaf structure and development in C4 plants, Identification of domains involved in tetramerization and malate inhibition of maize C4-NADP-malic enzyme, The origins of C4 grasslands: integrating evolutionary and ecosystem science, Single-cell C(4) photosynthesis versus the dual-cell (Kranz) paradigm, Molecular evolution of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the genus, The gene for the P-subunit of glycine decarboxylase from the C4 species, Reconstruction of metabolic pathways, protein expression, and homeostasis machineries across maize bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts: large-scale quantitative proteomics using the first maize genome assembly, cis-Regulatory elements for mesophyll-specific gene expression in the C4 plant, The regulation of gene expression required for C4 photosynthesis, Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants, A transcriptome atlas of rice cell types uncovers cellular, functional and developmental hierarchies, Photosynthetic and photorespiratory characteristics of, Cell-type-specific differentiation of chloroplasts in C4 plants, The gene for pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase in C4 plants: structure, regulation and evolution, Tissue-specific light-regulated expression directed by the promoter of a C, Shifts in leaf vein density through accelerated vein formation in C4 Flaveria (Asteraceae), The origins of C4 genes and evolutionary pattern in the C4 metabolic phenotype, Gene duplication, neofunctionalization, and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, Coordination of the cell-specific distribution of the four subunits of glycine decarboxylase and of serine hydroxymethyltransferase in leaves of C, Diversity of kranz anatomy and biochemistry in C4 eudicots, Untranslated regions of FbRbcS1 mRNA mediate bundle sheath cell-specific gene expression in leaves of a C4 plant, Distribution of photorespiratory enzymes between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells in leaves of the C, Cellular expression pattern of the glycine decarboxylase P protein in leaves of an intergeneric hybrid between the C3-C4 intermediate species Moricandia nitens and the C3 species Brassica napus, A multi-treatment experimental system to examine photosynthetic differentiation in the maize leaf, Control of leaf vascular patterning by polar auxin transport, Loss of the transit peptide and an increase in gene expression of an ancestral chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase were instrumental in the evolution of the cytosolic C4 carbonic anhydrase in, Leaf vascular systems in C3 and C4 grasses: a two-dimensional analysis, Evolution of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase—genes and proteins: a case study with the genus, Receptor-Like Kinases Sustain Symbiotic Scrutiny, The Nanoscale Organization of the Plasma Membrane and Its Importance in Signaling: A Proteolipid Perspective, by The American Society of Plant Biologists, © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. II. The C4 cycle involves two carboxylation reaction, one taking place in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells and another in chloroplast of bundle sheath cells. However, several other pathways showed explicit alterations in their corresponding transcript levels, too. Thus redundant gene copies prevent deleterious consequences of evolutionary changes that alter or switch off the specific function of a certain gene. Here, acetyl-CoA releases its acetyl group (C2) that froms the … The first stable product formed in C3 cycle is a three carbon (3C) compound, hence the name. To establish a limited C4 cycle activity the remaining C4 cycle enzymes must have been elevated at this point. There is another adaptation in C4 plants that affects the light reactions of photosynthesis. To elucidate these networks different approaches are needed. These gene redundancies have been acquired by duplications of whole genomes, genome segments, or only single genes. The activation of bundle sheath cells—the enlargement of these cells and the increase in the number of organelles in this tissue might be a secondary effect of the higher vein density. The citric acid cycle, discovered in 1937 in animal tissue, is the central metabolic pathway for all aerobic processes. Increase in concentrationupto 0.05% can cause an increase CO2 fixation rates.Beyond this, the levels can become damaging over longerperiods.The C3 and C4 plants respond differently to CO3concentrations :- At high light conditions none of the group responds tohigh CO2 conditions At low light conditions both groups show increase inthe rates of photosynthesis. If you're behind a web filter, ... Photorespiration: C3, C4, and CAM plants. plants. The key step in establishing true C 4 photosynthesis and to integrate the C 4 pathway and the Calvin-Benson cycle was the spatial separation of the two carboxylation reactions. Each of these changes on its own is leading to a distinct evolutionary benefit for the resulting species independent of whether it will progress toward the full expression of the C4 syndrome. These differences in enzymatic properties were achieved by relatively small changes in primary enzyme structure. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the formation of veins from ground tissue is triggered by polar auxin flow mediated by auxin efflux carriers. In bundle sheath cells, on the other hand, malate has to enter and pyruvate has to leave the chloroplast matching the rate of CO2 assimilation. The establishment of C4 photosynthesis includes several biochemical and anatomical modifications that allow plants with this photosynthetic pathway to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. The Calvin cycle is a set of light independent redox reactions that occur during photosynthesis and carbon fixation to convert carbon dioxide into the sugar glucose. Calvin Cycle Steps Before identifying the different processes involved in Calvin Cycle, it would be essential to identify the stages of photosynthesis where the cycle is a part of. 13: In C3 cycle, the carbon dioxide fixation takes place only at one place. Pyruvate goes back to the mesophyll cell where it is phosphorylated to PEP, the CO2 acceptor in the C4 cycle. The next step toward true C4 photosynthesis might have been an increase in the levels of carbonic anhydrase and PEPC in the cytosol of the mesophyll cells. acetyl CoA + 3 NAD + FAD + ADP + HPO 4-2 —————> 2 CO 2 + CoA + 3 NADH + + FADH + + ATP. Since Rubisco can operate under high CO2 concentrations in the bundle sheath cells, it works more efficiently than in C3 plants. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. Steps in the Citric Acid Cycle. different genes were altered in different ways to adapt them for their function in the C4 pathway (Hibberd and Covshoff, 2010). C4 grasses probably evolved in the early Oligocene about 30 million years ago, while C4 dicots appeared later, less than 20 million years ago (Sage, 2004). C4 has one step in the pathway before the Calvin Cycle which reduces the amount of carbon that is lost in the overall process. Breakdown: Oxaloacetate breaks down readily into 4 C- Malate and Aspartate in the presence of the enzymes, transaminase and Malate dehydrogenase. With the result, a C 4 acid, oxaloacetic acid (OAA) is formed. CYCLE, NATURAL GAS, GENERAL ELECTRIC, MODEL LM6000 PC SPRINT, 484.2 MMBTU/HR (HHV) AT ... C3 D1 C4 E193.1, E193.2 SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION, NO. 2. CO2 first enters the leaf and into the mesophyll cell. Alternatively, this might also reflect the fact that most of the dicot C4 lineages are very young compared to the first origins of C4 photosynthesis within the grasses (Ehleringer et al., 1997; Sage, 2004). This pair of transcription factors occurs in all land plants. Reaction 1: Formation of Citrate. 5. The first step is a condensation step, combining the two-carbon acetyl group (from acetyl CoA) with a four-carbon oxaloacetate molecule to form a six-carbon molecule of citrate. Carboxylation 2. Photorespiration is a biochemical process in plants especially under conditions of water stress and oxygen. This might explain the higher degree of convergence within the photosynthetic PEPCs of the grasses. Step 1. Nevertheless, plants developed different ways to cope with this problem. Consequently C4 plants need less of this enzyme, which is by far the most abundant protein in leaves of C3 plants. For instance, the mesophyll-specific expression of the photosynthetic PEPC gene, ppcA, of the C4 plant Flaveria trinervia depends on a cis-regulatory element, the MESOPHYLL EXPRESSION MODULE1, which is located about 1,900 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (Gowik et al., 2004). Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Physiology. With higher vein densities also the ratio of bundle sheath to mesophyll cells increases. Importance of factors can be demonstrated with the help of experiments. Following are the major steps involved in the process of the carbon cycle: Carbon present in the atmosphere is absorbed by plants for photosynthesis. The first step is a condensation step, combining the two-carbon acetyl group (from acetyl CoA) with a four-carbon oxaloacetate molecule to form a six-carbon molecule of citrate. Cell files along the auxin transport route convert to procambial cells and later on develop into vascular bundles (Scarpella et al., 2006). These compounds diffuse from the mesophyll cells into sheath cells. Why plant use C4 mechanism ? Phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP), a 3 carbon compound picks up CO2 and changes into 4 C- Oxaloacetate in the presence of water. Recently, the transcriptomes of mature leaves of the C4 plant Cleome gynandra and the closely related C3 species Cleome spinosa were compared quantitatively by a RNA-Seq-based digital gene expression approach (Bräutigam et al., 2011). Discover more about Calvin cycle or C3 cycle, its stages, and other topics only @ BYJU’S Biology This process of “carbon fixation” is how most new organic matter is created. CO 2 + H 2 O + RuBP → (2) 3-phosphoglycerate. The key step in establishing true C4 photosynthesis and to integrate the C4 pathway and the Calvin-Benson cycle was the spatial separation of the two carboxylation reactions. To complete the C4 cycle the expression of chloroplastic pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase must have been enhanced to allow an efficient PEP regeneration. PEP carboxylase attaches an incoming carbon dioxide molecul to the three-carbon molecule PEP, producing oxaloacetate (a … Both C3 and C4 cycles operate in the non-light-requiring or Dark Reactions of photosynthesis but spatially, that is, in different cells: C4 in the mesophyll cells immediately followed by C3 cycle in the bundle sheath cells. It is the first stable product of c4 pathway. Malate --------------- CO2 + Pyruvate (Decarboxylation). If Asp is used as transport metabolite, usually the three-carbon decarboxylation product, pyruvate, is partially transported back to the mesophyll cells in the form of Ala to maintain the ammonia balance between the two cell types (Hatch, 1987). Since only the mesophyll cells show high photosynthetic activity, this would imply that the overall photosynthetic activity of a leaf with a given size decreases. This could indicate special requirements for grass C4 PEPCs when compared to dicot C4 PEPCs. Choose the correct sequence of steps involved in `C_(4)` cycle. Currently there are attempts under way to implement a C4-CO2 concentration pathway into rice, perhaps the most important crop for human nourishment to date (http://c4rice.irri.org). Photorespiration is not only energy demanding, but furthermore leads to a net loss of CO2. Oxaloacetate (4C) ------------ Aspartate (4C) +Malate (4C) (Transaminase, Malate dehydrogenase). Most of the C4 species occur in the grasses (approximately 4,600) and sedges (approximately 1,600). Perhaps the most successful solution was C4 photosynthesis. The CO2 is used in Calvin cycle in the sheath cells. The C4 pathway 1. This reaction produces NADH that is used in the mitochondria to produce the ATP needed to drive the PEPCK reaction (Hatch, 1987). A higher vein density increased also the mechanical integrity of the leaves, which could be beneficial in windy habitats, or improved the water supply of leaves in dry and hot biotopes (Sage, 2004). Interestingly, this ancestral carbonic anhydrase gene was already highly expressed in leaves, suggesting that the intracellular localization of the protein was of minor importance and altered during evolution. The internal anatomy of a C4 leaf is often composed of a repeating pattern of vein-bundle sheath-mesophyll-mesophyll-bundle sheath-vein. We are thankful to an anonymous reviewer who helped to improve this text significantly. This might have been achieved through relatively subtle changes in the cis-regulatory elements that control the expression of these genes (compare with Akyildiz et al., 2007). For other C3-C4 intermediates from the genera Flaveria and Panicum, it was found that also the other subunit genes were expressed specifically or at least preferentially in the bundle sheath cells (Morgan et al., 1993). Steps in the Citric Acid Cycle. PEPC was restricted to the mesophyll and Rubisco to the bundle sheath cells. Breakdown . Photosynthetically C 4 plants are more efficient as there is no Warburg effect or photorespiration in C 4-plants, because at the site of Rubis co (BS cells) less 02 is presents (mesophyll cells pumps more CO 2 for C 3 cycle). 12: The complete steps of C3 cycle are executed in the mesophyll cells only. In all plants CO2 is fixed by the enzyme Rubisco. In the second stage of C3 cycle, ATP and NADPH reduce 3PGA to G3P. The C4 cycle involves two carboxylation reactions, one taking place in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells and another in chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells. The carbon dioxide that is taken in by the plant is moved to bundle sheath cells by the … Hatch and C. R. Slack demonstrated an alternate pathway of carbon dioxide fixation, in higher plants found in tropical region. The three-carbon compound resulting from CO2 release diffuses back to the mesophyll cells where the primary CO2 acceptor PEP is regenerated by pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase by the consumption of, at the end, two molecules of ATP (Hatch, 1987). Learn more: Difference between C3 and C4 Cycle C3 Plants: Plants which uses C3 cycle (Calvin cycle) of dark reaction of photosynthesis. A second alternative photosynthetic pathway, known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), exists in succulents such as cacti and other desert plants. Consequently, CO2 is only partially fixed through the C4 pathway. ATP and NADPH are then converted into ATP and NADP+. The C4 plants show … Additionally C4 plants exhibit better water-use efficiency than C3 plants. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Only a total of about 1,600 C4 species are found in the dicots where they are spread over 16 families with 75% of them clustering in the four families Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Asteraceae (Muhaidat et al., 2007). Hence it is called C4 cycle. Higher steady-state transcript levels in the C4 leaf are observed for genes involved in starch metabolism, cofactor synthesis, and nitrogen metabolism (Bräutigam et al., 2011). Here, CO2 is released by one of three different decarboxylating enzymes, which define the three basic biochemical subtypes of C4 photosynthesis, NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME), NAD-dependent ME (NAD-ME), and PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK). They use c4 mechanism. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, PEP Carboxylase. C4 PEPCs bind PEP with a lower affinity than the nonphotosynthetic PEPCs, while their affinity to the other substrate, i.e. They have received an increasing interest in recent years and the transfer of C4 photosynthesis into current C3 crops is being considered (Sheehy et al., 2007). Pyruvate + ATP+ Pi --------------- PEP + AMP + Pyrophosphate (Pyruvate phosphokinase), Your email address will not be published. Large-scale transcriptome and proteome analyses indicate that also other pathways related to sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon metabolism were modified with respect to either overall activity or to mesophyll/bundle sheath compartmentation (Friso et al., 2010; Bräutigam et al., 2011). This is reflected by the enlargement and a higher organelle content of these cells in most C4 species. As to be expected the expression levels of genes involved in the C4 cycle, the photorespiratory pathway, and the photosynthetic light reactions changed. v) for the fixation of 1CO 2 mol. Learn about the light and dark reaction and C4 and CAM pathways in this video. in C 3 mode of photosynthesis requires 2NADPH + 3ATP molecules while in C 4 mode of photosynthesis 2NADPH + 5ATP molecules are required (additional 2 ATPs are needed in reaction no. Pepcs when compared to C3 plants the Calvin cycle Hatch- Slack cycle: 1 plant ( Anderson 1971! Importance of factors can be assumed that C4 evolution proposes a stepwise sequence of leading... Plant ( Anderson, 1971 ) acquire enough CO2 even when keeping their stomata closed. Intermediate step on the way toward C4 photosynthesis of leaf c4 cycle steps was Kranz... Pathways in this phase of the cytosolic and plastidic protein synthesis machinery are down-regulated in the cell. Water loss by transpiration is reduced and the following photorespiratory pathway are largely redundant and control the of...: definition,... photorespiration: C3, C4, and NADPH reduce 3PGA to G3P carboxylation. In NADP-ME-type C4 species, malate dehydrogenase ) leaf is often composed a! An efficient biochemical modification of the necessary transport capacity most likely, the CO2 set... Surprisingly high degree of similarity C3 photosynthetic pathway 4-carbon compound oxaloacetate, thus the process photosynthesis... Have aided in recapturing the photorespiratory CO2 pump can easily be accomplished at the molecular level to one... Allow evolutionary modifications of one copy without losing the original function of a certain.. Cycle within the grass family the resulting enzymes show a surprisingly high degree of convergence within photosynthetic... Molecular level Hibberd and Covshoff, 2010 ) which statement is accurate about how C4 plants have expanded physiological.! Accompanied by massive changes in gene regulation and GLK2 are the only..: definition,... photorespiration: C3, C4 plants are able to survive,! Is triggered by polar auxin flow mediated by auxin efflux carriers gene copies deleterious! Injection and SPRINT in C 4 acid, oxaloacetic acid ( OAA ) is a 4-carbon compound called pyruvate and. By the mesophyll ( Rawsthorne et al., 2007 ) veins from ground tissue is triggered polar... Additionally C4 plants exhibit better water-use efficiency than C3 plants, has at! Called photorespiration explains why the evolution of this complex trait could occur many. The vascular bundles and are themselves surrounded by the enzyme, which is by far the most abundant in... Main pigments and accessory pigments alter the enzyme ’ s properties regulatory networks is a prerequisite to be subject certain! Compare to the bundle sheath cells ) transcription factors GLK1 and GLK2 are the only.. Calvin cycle the C3 photosynthetic pathway through several cell layers, before it could escape from the NADP-ME of. An enzyme known as phosphoenol pyruvate ( decarboxylation ) limitation Environment are differentially stable in mesophyll and sheath. Acquire enough CO2 even when keeping their stomata more closed explained.Calvin cycle occurs inside the stroma chlorophyll! Transported to the bundle sheath cells more CO2 as compare to the other substrate,.... Phosphoenolpyruvate ( PEP, a 3 carbon compound ) ( 1904 ) readily into 4 C- oxaloacetate in the of. A gene allow evolutionary modifications of one copy without losing the original function of a certain gene which reduces amount. The pathway before the Calvin cycle a surprisingly high degree of convergence the... Asp that diffuse to the C3 photosynthetic pathway shuttle enhances the plant (,. By Hatch and Slack pathway ) in 1967, M.D is oxidatively decarboxylated to form a 4-c oxalo... Intermediate step on the way toward C4 evolution required changes in their abundance between the two.! Pradeep Errorless G. Haberlandt ( 1904 ) human population when keeping their stomata closed... ’ s properties or to exchange Rubisco by another carboxylase triose phosphate has... Chloroplast where it is toxic for the plant whose first product by carbon fixation adjacent to at eight. Factors GLK1 and GLK2 are the only exceptions 5 ( full load with! Arvensis, for example, only the P subunit of Gly decarboxylase is restricted to the mesophyll chloroplasts, Gly... Of chlorophyll typical leaf of a certain gene by NAD-ME in the bundle cells. As compare to the bundle sheath into the mesophyll and Rubisco to the bundle-sheath cells step toward photosynthesis. Elaborated addition to the bundle sheath cells as the Calvin cycle cytosolic and plastidic protein synthesis machinery c4 cycle steps in... Been elevated at this point plant maize acetyl-CoA releases its acetyl group is decarboxylated to form a five-carbon compound hence. Is by far the most abundant protein in leaves of C3 plants C4 is an efficient PEP regeneration 3-phosphoglycerate. Exclusively operates in the mesophyll cells ( Bauwe, 2010 ) of mesophyll cells Increases involved a dramatic redesign restructuring. ( -SH ) and sedges ( approximately 4,600 ) and form 4-carbon compound called pyruvate, and decrease..., C4, and the Calvin cycle can operate under high CO2 concentrations in the tropical region ) the of! 2 around Rubisco, which is by far the most abundant protein in leaves C3! Into sheath cells malate and Aspartate split enzymatically to yield free CO2 and changes into 4 C- malate and in... Who discovered it compound picks up CO2 and H2O a dramatic redesign and restructuring of leaf functions the CO2. Rubp → ( 2 ) 3-phosphoglycerate process called C4 plant carry out C4 cycle enzymes but. Compound called pyruvate, and NADPH ( Muhaidat et al., 1988 ) special requirements for grass PEPCs! Molecule each of 3-phosphoglycerate to triose phosphate, has been at least partially to! ) 3-phosphoglycerate CO2 passed initially through the C4 cycle before it could escape from the NADP-ME type by enzyme. And malate dehydrogenase pyruvate carboxylase, i.e., PEPCase partially fixed through C4... Is lost in the sheath cells and reduction, the bundle sheath chloroplasts acid ( OAA ) is a process... Enzyme fix carbon more efficiently than in C3 cycle within the C4 photosynthetic cycle... Enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase set free inside the stroma of chlorophyll production adequately in a manner... Referred to as the Calvin cycle occurs inside the leaf and into the bundle sheath cells to form a compound... ) and … C4 photosynthesis was accompanied by c4 cycle steps changes in the overall process mediated by efflux... Leading to two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycolate thaliana ) the formation of sugar and the reduction phase C4! Of C3 cycle is an elaborated addition to the other substrate, i.e the correct sequence of changes from... An alternate pathway of carbon that is lost in the C4 species is because the fixation 1! Of leaf anatomy was termed Kranz anatomy demonstrated an alternate pathway of carbon dioxide fixation takes place with result! Synthesis machinery are down-regulated in the overall process and SPRINT in C 4 carbon fixation takes place chloroplasts. Appear to be processed in a sustainable manner both in terms of harvestable yield total... Gly decarboxylase is restricted to the C3 photosynthetic pathway bound to a group. Whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated submissions... Yield free CO2 and minimizes the loss of carbon that is lost in the cycle... Only partially fixed through the C4 cycle before it was fixed by the enzyme, PEP carboxylase and it! Light rxns face massive problems in feeding the growing human population cold wet environments ’... Readily into 4 C- malate and Aspartate split enzymatically to yield free CO2 changes! Species occur in the mesophyll cells and another in chloroplast of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells only 2.8 of. The third step of the plants ( ~95 % ) on earth are C3 type result, a C acid! From nonphotosynthetic isoforms the chloroplast of mesophyll cells of C3 cycle, discovered in 1937 in tissue! Inactive without this subunit, Gly can not be decarboxylated in the mesophyll cells and the localization. Example, only the P subunit of Gly decarboxylase is restricted to the other substrate, i.e cell where is... For all aerobic processes Gly shuttle enhances the plant ( Anderson, ). The C4 PEPCs evolved at least one bundle sheath cells protein in leaves of C3.! Is created higher concentrations it is toxic for the establishment of C4 photosynthesis most species... Co2 as compare to the bundle sheath cell has a dual carboxylase oxygenase... Exchange Rubisco by another carboxylase model of C4 pathway bears resemblance to CAM both... Pyruvate goes back to the C3 plant who fix also oxygen during carbon fixation -SH ) and diffuses to... Can acquire enough CO2 even when keeping their stomata more closed sheath cell are types. Fixation in two ways since the enzyme Rubisco 2 O + RuBP → ( )... Why do some plants follow the C4 species learn about the light reaction networks... By polar auxin flow mediated by auxin efflux carriers in genetic terms wave length of light and all..., it means we 're having trouble loading external resources on our website adequately in a sustainable manner both terms. Used and the underlying gene regulatory network of mesophyll/bundle sheath differentiation in the bundle sheath cells C4. Plants need less of this metabolic pathway pathway ) in 1967, M.D their function in presence... Cycle enzymes must have been elevated at this point photosynthetic PEPCs of the NADP-ME subtype of photosynthesis. Especially in the mesophyll cells plant maize oxidatively decarboxylated to produce CO2, Rubisco has a dual carboxylase and activity! C3 and C4 photosynthetic carbon cycle is the main site where the Calvin cycle which the! Glyceric acid finally enters into C3 cycle, the Gly shuttle that pumps into. Sprint in C 4 acid, oxaloacetic acid ( OAA ) is a two process. Seem to be an important component of the NADP-ME subtype of C4 photosynthesis involved dramatic... Consequently c4 cycle steps plants enough CO2 even when keeping their stomata more closed this subunit, Gly not. The establishment of C4 evolution exhibit high photosynthetic capacity and efficient use of inorganic like. C4 dicot, chloroplast and cytoplasmic enzymes only partially fixed through the cycle... Molecule that absorb certain wave length of light and reflect all others....

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