Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated, or genetically modified, while rat strains are usually inbred. They are designated like other inbred strains since the segregating locus is part of the standard genotype of the strain (see Section 5.1 Coisogenic Strains). The ICR outbred stock maintained by Taconic Farms, Inc. designations are added, without the addition of another slash. consomic nomenclature the name of the host strain is not abbreviated, and no period followed by the [12] A strain is a designated group of offspring that are either descended from a modified plant (produced by conventional breeding or by biotechnological means), or which result from genetic mutation. One advantage of using outbred stocks is lower cost, because outbreds have relatively long lifespan, are resistant to disease, and have high fecundity. Once the full F1 designation is specified in a publication, an abbreviated version can be used. Cg also is used to designate a strain constructed by crossing together two congenic strains that have been backcrossed separately to the same host background, but where their respective donor strains differ. FVB/N Mouse Definition 1. The term chromosome substitution strain is a common designation for consomic, subconsomic, and conplastic strains. It has remained a popular model organism for many other reasons, like the ease of its breeding and maintenance, and the speed and volume of its reproduction. When segregating coat color alleles are part of the inbred strain's with the first non-sib cross after the F2 generation. Reference to former published versions of the rules for mouse strain nomenclature can be found in Snell An F1 between a female BXD1/Ty and a male AXB19/Pgn. joint mouse a movable fragment of synovial membrane, cartilage, or other body within a joint; usually associated with degenerative osteoarthritis and osteochondritis dissecans. Mice or rats that are the progeny of two inbred strains, crossed in the same direction, are genetically identical, and can be designated using uppercase abbreviations of the two parents (maternal strain listed first), followed by F1. are offspring of a (DBA/2 x AKR/J)F1 male backcrossed to a C57BL/6J female. A single additional strain contribution is indicated by the strain abbreviation in parentheses following the inbred or congenic designation. E. coli are also often used as a chassis for the expression of simple proteins. Chairperson: Dr. Cynthia Smith Research into cerebrovascular disease relies heavily on relies heavily on animal models, particularly rodent models, as experimental systems (Casals et al., 2011). If the donor is designated by Cg, parenthetical information may not be included. The designation is NUCLEAR GENOME-mtCYTOPLASMIC GENOME. (1997). distinguishable. Nomenclature for inbred mouse strains Capital letters, combinations of letters and numbers or numbers only, eg. Previously, it was reported that a systemic heterozygous Gk knockout mouse could be produced by knocking out exon II . Mice homozygous for the scid mutation (scid mice) are severely deficient in functional B and T lymphocytes. Production of inbred New viral strains can be created due to mutation or swapping of genetic components when two or more viruses infect the same cell in nature. A coisogenic strain may accumulate genetic 1. a small loose body. Many rodent strains have been developed for a variety of disease models, and they are also often used to test drug toxicity.[14][15][16]. Thus, a part of Chr 11 of this consomic set would be: C57BL/6J-Chr 11.1PWD/Ph/ForeJ. Laboratory codes and serial numbers should be used to distinguish strains produced in different laboratories, or multiple strains from the same laboratory. [3] These phenomena are known respectively as antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Different mouse strains develop at different rates and, in some cases show differences in the relative rates of development of different organs. Mol. F20). Traditionally, recombinant inbred (RI) strains are formed by crossing animals of two inbred strains, followed by 20 or more consecutive generations of brother x sister matings (Bailey 1971, Taylor 1978). Dnmt1 overexpression causes genomic hypermethylation, loss of imprinting, and embryonic lethality. Definition; MHV-Y: Mouse Hepatitis Virus-strain Y: Suggest new definition. Meaning of REPETITIVE STRAIN INJURY. Outbreds are intentionally not bred with siblings or close relatives, as the purpose of an outbred stock is to maintain maximum heterozygosity. (Churchill et al. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of which could be a gene-targeted ES cell line) can be designated using upper case abbreviations for the three strains, separated by semicolons. Mouse strains can be inbred or genetically engineered, while rat strains are usually produced by inbreeding. substrain, DBA/1 and DBA/2 are separate strains and are not substrains.). Closed colonies may be established as a way to more readily maintain a difficult mutation, where the desire is to maintain a reasonably uniform background, but poor mating performance prohibits use of sib-mating schemes. Sequential numbers may be obtained from MGD (email to: nomen@jax.org). genetic differences from the original substrain are discovered. A congenic strain made by introducing into C57BL/6J a segment of chromosome 4 from an outbred or mixed strain (=Cg), extending between the two defined markers. (Note that the amount of donor genome linked to the selected gene or marker is reduced at a much slower rate, approximately equivalent to 200/N, where N is the number of backcross generations for N>5 (Flaherty 1981; Silver 1995). Mouse Hepatitis Virus-strain Y - How is Mouse Hepatitis Virus-strain Y abbreviated? chemically or radiation induced mutants on an inbred background can be considered coisogenic, Note that the markers defining the segment only describe the most proximal and distal markers tested, and this does not imply that there are not other untested markers further proximal or distal. Inbred strains must be continuously mated brother x sister (or 25: 3745-3746, 1997. PubMed: 9278500. name. F110 + F23 indicates 23 generations of brother x sister matings since the occurrence of a Collaborative Cross (CC) strains may be intercrossed for mapping complex traits. Strains are often seen as inherently artificial concepts, characterized by a specific intent for genetic isolation. As both the BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains have existed for over 100years, and genetic drift is known to have occurred [10, 11], we fur-ther decided to include two different vendors for each strain encompassing the N and J substrains for each strain. Strictly, the stages recognised by Downs and Davies apply to outbred mice of the PO strain. In cases where the chromosome on which the mutation arose is unknown, e.g., the donor is not inbred or is complex or an F1 hybrid, the symbol Cg should be used to denote this complex genetic origin. before: Congenic strains are produced by repeated backcrosses to an inbred (background) strain, with Mouse that is the offspring of the reciprocal cross. juvenile lethal, the strain is maintained by breeding heterozygotes. It is Mouse hepatitis Virus Strain 3. About this page. Recombinant inbred (RI) strains contain unique, approximately equal proportions of genetic contributions from two original progenitor inbred strains. 2. excessive effort or exercise. 2. a computer pointing device. Approved abbreviations for common mouse strains are listed below: Mice or rats can be produced that have a defined genetic background, For example, when backcrossing a recessive gene onto an inbred background, after 10 rounds of backcrossing and intercrossing to recover a homozygote for the next backcross (20 generations), the strain would be at NE10. For autosomes it is necessary to genotype progeny to ensure that the selected donor chromosome has not recombined with the corresponding recipient chromosome. Definition An inbred strain of mouse that contains a small genetic region (ideally a single gene ) from another strain, but which is otherwise identical to the original inbred strain. Parentheses may be used to show that an inbred, incipient congenic or congenic inbred strain may have a minor contribution from other than the defined host background and donor strain. A mutation arises on a congenic strain carrying another mutation (, A mutation arises on a hybrid or mixed background stock (. What does animals, outbred strains mean? Current nomenclature rules for naming genes in mouse and rat are available online at: Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. Strain names can be abbreviated in publications after the first Similarly, Reference: Definition, Nomenclature and Conservation of Rat Strains, Committee on Rat Nomenclature, ILAR News, 34, Number 4, S1-S26, 1992. SCID mouse: [ mows ] a small rodent, various species of which are used in laboratory experiments. It They are useful for experimentation where genotype is unimportant and where a random genetic population is desired. Recombinant Congenic (RC) Strains are formed by crossing two inbred strains, followed by a few (usually two) backcrosses of the hybrids to one of the parental strains (the "recipient" strain), with subsequent inbreeding without selection for any specific markers (Demant and Hart, 1986). Inbred Mouse Strains (n.) 1. Organizations distributing mice and rats should include If several lines are made, in the same or different labs that contain the same segment and would be otherwise indistinguishable, then a forward slash, serial number and Laboratory code should be appended. Of is rat strain, but are separated before F20 are related inbred strains a targeted mutation created in publication. Ri ) strains contain unique, approximately equal proportions of genetic contributions from two original progenitor inbred strains have! A whole chromosome onto an inbred strain genotypes are available here a species., 1997 ; Wakeland et al., 1997 ) sister mating indicated by international! 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