An appropriate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction technique is required to obtain at least 10 ng of DNA. The aim of the study was to identify biological specimens from diverse vertebrate animals by extracting and amplifying DNA from 44 different animal species covering the 5 major vertebrate groups (i.e. Other articles where Cytochrome c is discussed: cytochrome: …letters and numbers, such as cytochrome a3, cytochrome c, and cytochrome B562. To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). Multiplex PCR was used to screen for DNA of 10 mammalian species with species-specific primers that anneal to regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Forensic Sci Int Genet. Identification of the species is required to determine that a crime has been committed. A nuclear DNA-based species determination and DNA quantification assay for common poultry species. Asini Corii Collas (ACC; donkey glue) is a crude drug used to promote hematopoiesis and arrest bleeding. Amplification of part of the cytochrome b gene using universal primers produces a fragment of approx 486 bp in size. Virus Genes. Because adulteration of the drug with substances from other animals such as horses, cattle, and pigs has been found, we examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome bgene for source species identification. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene has been used in phylogenetic as well as in forensic investigations [10–12] and has been shown in a variety of studies to be a very useful DNA-region for species determination [13–18] However, before applicable for routine analysis, species-specific diagnostic polymorphisms or mutations must be determined. 51, Issue. Identification of the species is required to determine that a crime has been committed. Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167915. NLM This produces a fragment of 486 bp in size which can be sequenced using standard technologies. 2020 Oct 31;16(1):413. doi: 10.1186/s12917-020-02619-6. Methods Mol Biol. Han HJ, Wen HL, Zhao L, Liu JW, Luo LM, Zhou CM, Qin XR, Zhu YL, Zheng XX, Yu XJ. 12, p. 4060. The high copy number of mtDNA compared to nuclear DNA makes this locus ideal for analysis from highly degraded DNA. Cytochrome b is commonly used as a region of mitochondrial DNA for determining phylogenetic relationships between organisms, due to its sequence variability. The cytochrome b (cyt b) gene is one of the most commonly used genetic loci, applied in both taxonomy and forensic science, for the purpose of species identification. Multilocus sequence typing reveals diverse known and novel genotypes of Leptospira spp. Specific PCR, amplifying a fragment of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b gene, are developed for discrimination of chicken, turkey, pig, cow and sheep. The Bayesian approach in Multidivtime simultaneously estimates the rate and age for each node of a given tree, assuming a prior distribution of evolutionary rates along branches, and, optionally, constraints on the age of certain internal nodes. 2017 Jan 12;12(1):e0167915. The cytochrome b gene has been used in numerous studies of phylogenetic relationships within mammals, and it is the gene for which the most sequence information from different mammalian species is available (Irwin, Kocher, and Wilson 1991 ; Meyer 1994 ; Johns and Avise 1998 ). See also cellular respiration. Parasit Vectors. Keywords: Direct sequencing of the PCR products allows comparison of the DNA sequence at this locus to those already described on the EMBL DNA database. He WQ, Xiong YQ, Ge J, Chen YX, Chen XJ, Zhong XS, Ou ZJ, Gao YH, Cheng MJ, Mo Y, Wen YQ, Qiu M, Huo ST, Chen SW, Zheng XY, He H, Li YZ, You FF, Zhang MY, Chen Q. BMC Vet Res. This is due to the higher variation of the Cyt b gene as compared to Zoonoses Public Health. Fast-evolving regions such as the "D-loop" might be used for studying closely related species while slowly-evolving regions such as cytochrome b (CYTB) and cytochrome oxidase I (COX1) might be used for distantly related species. ), goat (Capra hircus) and bison (Bison bison). NIH Epub 2010 Jun 5. Cytochrome c is highly water-soluble, unlike other cytochromes, and is an essential component of the electron transport chain, where it carries one electron. These iconic high profile species are one part of the illegal trade in wildlife products that threatens these species and the ecological balance in the habitats in which they live. Abstract. Epub 2017 Apr 1.  |  The objective of this study was to employ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis using species specific primer (SSP) targeting on wild boar mitochondrial cytochrome-b (CYTBWB2-wb) gene for the identification of WBM in a meatball. 2020 Oct 20;82(10):1464-1471. doi: 10.1292/jvms.19-0530. Species determination by analysis of the cytochrome b gene. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. We describe protocols using a direct sequencing method based on 212−274-bp diagnostic sequences derived from species-specific mitochondria DNA cytochrome b, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences which can efficiently be applied to unambiguously determine even closely related fish species in processed food products labeled “anchovy”.  |  DNA typing in wildlife crime: recent developments in species identification. This protein plays a key role in structures called mitochondria, which convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. HHS The results obtained in many of the phylogenetic studies in which this gene has been use… Hemoproteins are proteins linked to a nonprotein, iron-bearing component. The cytochrome complex, or cyt c, is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.It belongs to the cytochrome c family of proteins and plays a major role in cell apoptosis. The use of molecular markers can enhance species identification, and acquires particular relevance in capture-release studies. The illegal trade in ivory and rhino horn has led to a catastrophic decline in elephant and rhino populations worldwide. circulating in Sri Lanka. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 2018 Jan;163(1):73-88. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3570-3. Would you like email updates of new search results? Species Determination: The Role and Use of the Cytochrome b Gene. Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Insectivorous Bats, China, 2015. phylogenetic studies (Md-Zain et al., 2008, 2010a,b; Lim et al., 2010). 2018 May 29;11(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2902-9. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. 2009 Mar;3(2):67-73. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.10.005. Han HJ, Liu JW, Wen HL, Qin XR, Zhao M, Wang LJ, Zhou CM, Qi R, Yu H, Yu XJ. NLM COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Recent estimates of the number of species range from 10 to 100 million (Wilson 1998). The cyt b gene could have been used for both positive diagnosis and species identification. The cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used in species identification,,,, and in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. Would you like email updates of new search results? Meat samples from cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, chicken and horse were utilized for molecular analysis of each species as per standard method. 2018 Jun;24(6):1123-1126. doi: 10.3201/eid2406.171585. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. Epub 2016 Mar 15. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Babesia vesperuginis in insectivorous bats from China. Epub 2012 Jul 27. Han HJ, Wen HL, Liu JW, Qin XR, Zhao M, Wang LJ, Luo LM, Zhou CM, Zhu YL, Qi R, Li WQ, Yu H, Yu XJ.  |  Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), especially the gene for cytochrome b (MT-CYB), has been found to be highly informative for species identification. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Species determination by analysis of the cytochrome b gene. Soman M, Paul RJ, Antony M, Padinjarattath Sasidharan S. J Food Sci Technol. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. The sequence variability of cytochrome b makes it most useful for the comparison of species in the same genus or the same family. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. A cytochrome b ( cytb ) gene quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to diagnose malaria in travelers. Zheng XY, Qiu M, Ke XM, Guan WJ, Li JM, Huo ST, Chen SW, Zhong XS, Zhou W, Xiong YQ, Ge J, Chen Q. PLoS One. 2010 Sep;6(3):195-206. doi: 10.1007/s12024-010-9168-7. In this study, we present the results of the analysis of a 127 bp long fragment of MT-CYB, amplified using universal primers, variable enough to be used for species identification and discrimination, even in highly degraded animal samples. Karunanayake L, Gamage CD, Gunasekara CP, De Silva S, Izumiya H, Morita M, Muthusinghe DS, Yoshimatsu K, Niloofa R, Karunanayake P, Uluwattage W, Ohnishi M, Koizumi N. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. Epub 2017 Oct 7. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a detection method of WBM contamination. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008573. 2016 Jun;52(3):417-21. doi: 10.1007/s11262-016-1315-0. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Many large mammalian species are on the verge of extinction in part because of the trade in their skin, bone, horn, or body parts for supposed medicinal purposes. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Epub 2020 Jul 24. mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes). Cytochrome b is one of 11 components of a group of proteins called complex III. Further, the CYBB (cytochrome b‐254 beta‐chain) gene (OMIM #300481) is situated on the short arm of the X chromosome at position 21.1, containing 13 exons and spanning 30 kb. 2010 Sep;6(3):195-206. doi: 10.1007/s12024-010-9168-7. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. There are different rates of change in different gene regions. Cytochrome c is the most stable and abundant member of the class, and it has been the most thoroughly studied. 2016;1420:287-96. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3597-0_20. Cytochrome b gene was amplified by multiplex PCR using a common forward primer. DNA typing in wildlife crime: recent developments in species identification. Multiplex PCR, in which many primers were used together for amplification of multiple target regions, is a hopeful technique for meat species identification. 2013 Apr;20(3):174-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2012.06.014. By mixing 7 backward primers in the appropriate ratios species-specific DNA fragments could The presence of DNA from one or more species not declared on the label was identified in all 21 diets: cow (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa), sheep (Ovis sp. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Viral metagenomics of six bat species in close contact with humans in southern China. This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor quality samples such as powdered horn or ivory products including statues and carvings. 2017 Dec;64(8):636-646. doi: 10.1111/zph.12358. Epub 2017 Oct 5. This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor quality samples such as powdered horn or ivory products including statues and carvings. Lee JC, Tsai LC, Liao SP, Linacre A, Hsieh HM. Such decisions are rarely accompanied with all sufficient biological information concerning ≥2 putative species (i.e., sympa…  |  Detecting mislabelling in meat products using PCR-FINS. Lee EJ, Lee YH, Moon SH, Kim NY, Kim SH, Yang MS, Choi DH, Han MS. J Forensic Leg Med. Trp-142 is a highly conserved residue of the cytochrome b subunit in the bc 1 complexes. It is considered to be most useful in determining relationships within families and genera. The results of these analyses parallel and reinforce some of the principal trends in genetic distance estimates derived from … Johns and Avise (1998) employed approximately 2000 cytochrome b gene sequences from GenBank to calculate and compare levels of genetic distance between sister species, congeneric species, and confamilial genera within and across the major vertebrate taxonomic classes. This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor quality samples such as powdered horn or ivory products including statues and carvings. To study the importance of this residue in the quinol oxidation catalyzed by the bc 1 complex, we characterized four yeast mutants with arginine, lysine, threonine, and serine at position 142. in R. norvegicus has no similarity with the cytochrome b gene from six other species, so it can be used as molecular markers to detect the presence of rat meat contamination in the processed of meat products. CITES; Cytochrome b; DNA; Mitochondria; Species identification; Wildlife. An internationally standardized species identification test for use on suspected seized rhinoceros horn in the illegal wildlife trade. Emerg Infect Dis. cytochrome b gene variability. However, handling of amplified DNA for diagnosis and identification increased the risk of carryover and, therefore, the risk of false-positive results. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2020 Aug 25;14(8):e0008573. The cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene, in particular, has been used in the investigation of systematic relationships among mammals and is suitable for bovid species. The resulting sequences are then aligned to voucher specimens or sequences on reliable databases. It encodes the β‐chain of flavocytochrome b 245 (also called as gp91 phox or NOX2). HHS J Vet Med Sci. The MT-CYB gene provides instructions for making a protein called cytochrome b.  |  PCR-based screening and phylogenetic analysis of rat pegivirus (RPgV) carried by rodents in China. A prerequisite for reliable detection of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings is the availability of ultra-sensitive and high-throughput molecular tools. Abstract. First, manual and automated DNA extractions were compared and automated DNA extraction of 400 μl of blood was found to be more efficient. To get sufficiently accurate estimates, we used only species for which the complete cytochrome b was available (data set 1, 89 species). The identification of elephant ivory evidences of illegal trade with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and hypervariable D-loop region. In this study, we discuss the extent of the use of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for species identification, comparing external morphology identification with a molecular phylogenetic classification based on this marker, under the light of current bat systematics. Species determination: the role and use of the cytochrome b gene. eCollection 2017. There are many methods for amplifying sequences common to multiple species using universal primers, such as the amplification of mitochondrial rDNA [9, 10], cytochrome b [11, 12], cytochrome oxidase I [13, 14], myoglobin , or the D-loop region [16,17,18,19,20] and subsequent identification using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. The present study is focused on the use of multiplex PCR and the reliability of cytochrome b gene variability in rapid detection and identification of meat species. USA.gov. Analyses of the data should lead to confident species identification. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Technologies in Wildlife Investigation - Species Identification. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Technologies in Wildlife Investigation - Species Identification. Epub 2008 Nov 28. Novel coronaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses and circoviruses in insectivorous bats from northern China. Species identification was carried out by nucleotide sequence analysis of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. An appropriate DNA extraction technique is required to obtain at least 1 ng of DNA from which the amplification of part of the cytochrome b gene using universal primers is performed. Han HJ, Wen HL, Zhao L, Liu JW, Luo LM, Zhou CM, Qin XR, Zhu YL, Liu MM, Qi R, Li WQ, Yu H, Yu XJ. Capillary electrophoresis of mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences for animal species identification. 2020 Nov;57(11):4286-4292. doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04641-w. Epub 2020 Jul 18. Epub 2010 Jun 5. 2012;830:321-9. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-461-2_22. The species is the primary unit of concern in biodiversity, conservation, and other biological issues. Ewart KM, Frankham GJ, McEwing R, Webster LMI, Ciavaglia SA, Linacre AMT, The DT, Ovouthan K, Johnson RN. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (cytb-qPCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene of the four major human Plasmodium species (P. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Methods Mol Biol. 2018 Jan;32:33-39. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2017.10.003. This site needs JavaScript to work properly.  |  Many large mammalian species are on the verge of extinction in part because of the trade in their skin, bone, horn, or body parts for supposed medicinal purposes. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. Detection of novel adenoviruses in fecal specimens from rodents and shrews in southern China. USA.gov. Cytochrome, any of a group of hemoprotein cell components that, by readily undergoing reduction and oxidation (gain and loss of electrons) with the aid of enzymes, serve a vital function in the transfer of energy within cells. NIH For species identification using bovine fecal samples, cytochrome b fragment between positions 867 and 1140 was found to contain species diagnostic sites, which distinguishes the four species encountered in the region: B. gaurus, B. indicus, B. javanicus and B. taurus. This broad range of estimates exacerbates the difficulty in making accurate decisions concerning which populations have acquired reproductive isolation and maintain integrity of their respective gene pools. eCollection 2020 Aug. Zheng XY, Qiu M, Guan WJ, Li JM, Chen SW, Cheng MJ, Huo ST, Chen Z, Wu Y, Jiang LN, Chen Q. Arch Virol. For sex determination, primers were initially tested on DNA obtained from blood. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China. This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor-quality samples such as powdered horn. Composition of gut and oropharynx bacterial communities in Rattus norvegicus and Suncus murinus in China. 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